Neurologist derives from Greek neuron, nerve, plus logos, science.
Neuralgia is acute pain along the nerves and their branches; the word comes from neuron plus algos, pain.
Neuritis is inflammation of the nerves.
Neurosis, combining neuron with -osis, a suffix meaning abnormal or diseased condition, is not, despite its etymology, a disorder of the nerves, but rather, as described by the late Eric Berne, a psychiatrist, ‘. . . an illness characterized by excessive use of energy for unproductive purposes so that personality development is hindered or stopped. A man who spends most of his time worrying about his health, counting his money, plotting revenge, or washing his hands, can hope for little emotional growth’. .
Neurotic is both the adjectival form and the term for a person suffering from neurosis.
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