Monday, October 31, 2011


Respond= a verbal reply; answer: ‘She didn't respond to my question.’

Respond is a verb: ‘We are still waiting for them to respond.’

Response is a noun: ‘I’m surprised we got such a quick response.’ ‘In response to your last comment, I’m afraid that I don’t agree.’

Responsible is an adjective. Responsible for (doing) sth: ‘Who’s responsible for roof repairs – you or the landlord?’ ‘The person responsible for leaking the story to the press has been forced to resign.’

Saturday, October 29, 2011


Resist = fight against; oppose: ‘We shall resist any changes that threaten our personal freedom.’

Can’t stand/bear (= be unable to tolerate; to withstand the action or effect of): ‘I’d like to live in Africa but I don’t think I could bear the heat.’ ‘These walls can resist the high tides.’

Resist sb/sth (WITHOUT to/against): ‘By resisting the Mafia’s attempts to control the region, Steve was putting his own life in danger.’

Friday, October 28, 2011


Reserve= (1) to arrange, secure or keep for oneself in advance: ‘I managed to reserve two seats in the front row for tomorrow night’s performance.’ (2) to give or assign a resource to a particular person or cause: ‘The ground is reserved for gardening.’

Book = (British English) arrange for a hotel room, holiday accommodation etc., to be kept for you to be use at a certain time: ‘We’ve booked a holiday cottage in the Lake District for the first two weeks in June.’

Thursday, October 27, 2011


When remember means ‘bring to mind the memory of somebody or something or think of again (i.e. recall) then can/could is usually optional: ‘I (can) still remember the sad look on her face.’ Use can/could to suggest effort: ‘I just can’t remember how the film ended.’

When remember means ‘have or keep the memory of somebody or something in your mind’, it is usually used WITHOUT can/could: ‘I hope you still remember me.’ ‘I’ll always remember the night we first met.’

Tuesday, October 25, 2011


Rely = to have confidence or faith in: ‘Rely on your friends.’

When you mean that one thing is decided or shaped by another thing, use depend on (NOT rely on): ‘The cost of the trip depends on how long you go for and where you stay.’

Monday, October 24, 2011


Regard= (i) perceive or think about in a particular way: ‘I don’t regard the situation quite as negatively as you do.’ (ii) (usually plural) a polite expression of desire for someone's welfare: ‘Convey him my kind regards.’ (iii) to give proper attention or consideration: ‘Due regard should be given to all aspects of the problem.’ (iv) a particular point or aspect: ‘She was very unlucky in that regard.’

With regard (= concerning someone or something) to (WITHOUT s): ‘With regard to the minutes of our last meeting, may I first draw your attention to Item 3.’

As regards (WITH s) (= in connection with something): ‘As regards transport, I would suggest that we hire a mini bus for the days in question.’

Regard for sb/sth (= an attitude of admiration, respect, or esteem for): ‘She lost all regard for him.’

Regardless of sth (= in spite of everything): ‘The school accepts all students, regardless of educational level and background.’

Saturday, October 22, 2011


Recent = (1) of the immediate past or just previous to the present time: ‘In recent months house prices have fallen.’ ‘In recent years the crime rate has increased.’ (2) new, fresh: ‘A recent addition to the publication.’ ‘Recent graduates’

When you mention a number, use last (NOT recent): ‘Over the last 12 months house price have fallen.’

Friday, October 21, 2011


The position of really (= very) is a matter of emphasis. E.g.: ‘He runs really fast.’ Very often, it comes immediately before the adjective or adverb it modifies: ‘some really good news’, ‘a really old car’. Otherwise, it is usually placed immediately in front of the main verb as an intensifier: ‘You really fooled me.’ ‘We’re really enjoying ourselves.’

Really and actually are sometimes interchangeable: ‘She sold the piano for a lot more than it was actually/really worth.’ When you mean ‘strange as it may seem’ (expression of doubtful interest or surprise, use actually (NOT really): ‘Instead of running away as he normally does, he actually offered to stay and help.’

Thursday, October 20, 2011


React = show a response or a reaction to something (NOT on/at): ‘People reacted to the speech in different ways.’ ‘Reactions to the news of the merger were less positive than expected.’ ‘The reaction to the article was predictable.’ ‘It’s time the government reacted to the crisis.’

Wednesday, October 19, 2011


Raise= (1) (farming) cultivate by growing plants, vegetables, animals etc. especially on a farm to sell as food: ‘We raise hogs here.’ (2) increase the level or amount of something: ‘She got a 15% raise.’ (3) cause to move upwards: ‘She raised her eyes from her book and stared at him.’

Grow= cause to grow or develop plants, flowers, vegetables, etc., in garden for pleasure: ‘This year I thought I’d try growing a few tomatoes.’

Raise sth (WITHOUT up) = take from a lower to a higher position: ‘If you want to ask a question, just raise your hand.’ ‘The age of retirement should be lowered, not raised.’

Raise (raising, raised) is a transitive verb: ‘They wouldn’t dare to raise taxes just before an election.’

Raise (rising, rose, risen) is intransitive: ‘The divorce rate has risen steadily over the last forty years.’ ‘Prices rose again last month.’

Tuesday, October 18, 2011


Purpose = (1) what you hope to achieve by doing something; intention: ‘The main purpose of the trip is to see Helen’s parents.’ ‘Their purpose in coming here is to promote Australian culture.’ (2) aim: ‘Sometimes her life seemed to lack purpose or meaning.’

Reason = the thing that causes someone to do something; an explanation of the cause of some phenomenon: ‘The reason why I have come here is to improve my English.’ ‘Did they give you a reason for rejecting your application?’

Monday, October 17, 2011


Protest = say or do something to show that you strongly disagree with something; express opposition or objection through action or words: ‘The crowds were protesting against the government’s purchase of nuclear weapons.’

Complain = say that you are annoyed or unhappy about something; express discontent or displeasure: ‘He’s always complaining about the weather.’ ‘If you think that you have been overcharged, you should complain to the manager.’

Saturday, October 15, 2011


Propaganda is used in a political context: ‘Roadside hoardings displayed anti-Western propaganda.’ ‘In times of war the public are bombarded with propaganda.’

Advertising is used in a commercial context: ‘Car manufactures spend billions of dollars a year on advertising.’ ‘The television company receives most of its money from advertising.’

Friday, October 14, 2011


Promotion= (1) a message issued in behalf of some product, cause, idea, person, or institution: ‘The company is now focusing more on the promotion of its new product.’ (2) act of raising in rank or position: There is a great chance of promotion within the company.’ ‘She was given a well-deserved promotion.’

In phrases, such as get promotion, apply for promotion and chance/s of promotion, the noun promotion is usually uncountable: ‘Women should have the same chance of promotion as their male counterparts.’ ‘With so many staff leaving, we can expect a few more promotions.’

Thursday, October 13, 2011


Print = produce copies of a book, newspaper, etc. by using machines: ‘Due to increased demand, another six thousand copies are to be printed.’

Publish = produce and distribute (a book, magazine, newspaper, etc.) for public distribution or sale: ‘The first edition of this book was published in 1989.’ ‘Amateur Photographer is published every Tuesday.’

Wednesday, October 12, 2011


Pretend = behave in a way that aims to give someone a false impression; to make believe with the intent to deceive: ‘He got into the conference hall by pretending to be a security guard.’ ‘She hurried past, pretending not to see me.’

Intend = have in mind as a plan or purpose; be planning to do something: ‘As soon as the baby falls asleep, she intends to go back to work.’

Claim = state that something is true, especially when there is no proof or evidence that it is true: ‘She claims that she wasn’t informed about the meeting.’

Tuesday, October 11, 2011


Prefer to do sth (NOT to doing): ‘They’d prefer to wait and see what happens.’ When you talking about a future or imaginary event, use (would) prefer + to do sth (NOT doing): ‘I think I’d prefer to wait a bit longer, just in case the others show up.’

Prefer (doing) sth to (doing) sth else (NOT than): ‘He normally prefers classical music to rock.’ ‘Most women prefer breastfeeding to bottle feeding.’

Monday, October 10, 2011


A person’s power refers to their social, economic, or political influence: ‘The royal family has very little power these days.’ ‘The major investors have the power to make or break a company.’

When talking about someone’s physical condition, use energy or strength (NOT power): ‘I don’t have the time or energy to go out in the evenings.’ ‘Her doctor has told her to take things easy until she gets her strength back.’

Saturday, October 8, 2011


Pleasant = (of a person) polite and friendly: ‘I’ve always found Bob very pleasant to work with.’

Pleased = happy, satisfied: ‘I was very pleased to hear that you’re feeling better.’

Pleasure = It gives pleasure to do sth (WITHOUT a): ‘It gives me immense pleasure to introduce today’s guest speaker.’

Do sth for pleasure (WITHOUT his/our/their etc.): ‘She used to be in the national team but now she swims just for pleasure.’

Be pleased to do sth BUT have the pleasure of doing sth: ‘In Java, I had the pleasure of attending a traditional wedding ceremony.’

Wednesday, October 5, 2011


Pillow = a bag-like object stuffed with soft material and used to cushion your head or body while sleeping or taking rest: ‘The moment his head touched the pillow, he fell asleep.’ ‘Arrange all the pillows on the bed.’

Cushion = a bag-like object filled with soft material that you put on a chair, sofa etc. to make it more comfortable: ‘Would you like a cushion for your back?’

Tuesday, October 4, 2011


Personal (adjective) = concerning or belonging to one person in particular; individual or private: ‘The novel is based on the author’s own personal experience.’ ‘He has his personal bank account.’

Personnel (noun) = (1) all the people employed in a company, office etc.: ‘In case of emergency, all personnel must report to the reception area.’ (2) the administrative division of an organization responsible for hiring and training and placing employees and for setting policies for personnel management: ‘The personnel officer wants you to call and arrange an interview.’

Monday, October 3, 2011


People = (plural) any group of human beings (men, women, or children) collectively: ‘He finds it difficult to get along with people.’ ‘I think people who do these things should be punished.’

People is a plural noun and takes a plural verb: ‘People have been very kind to me.’

Everybody/everyone (NOT all/every people): ‘Everyone needs someone to love.’

Saturday, October 1, 2011


Peculiar = markedly different from the usual; distinctive in nature; strange, especially in a surprising or unpleasant way: ‘I’m not sure about this cheese. The taste is a bit peculiar.’ ‘She had a peculiar expression on her face.’

Unusual = uncommon or rare: ‘She has an unusual name.’ ‘His behavior is very unusual for his age.’